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Egyptian Pharaohs

Egyptians Pharaohs

Akhenaten, one of many ancient Egyptian pharaohs, is perhaps best renowned for his loyalty to one deity at a time when the rest of the world, by and large, worshipped several gods. He is certainly the only one of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs to promote a monotheistic religion. This was not to occur again until the Roman Empire took control of Egypt and Christianity was instituted as the official religion.

Akhenaten was born to Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. Akhenaten's wife is believed to have, at the very least, been a relative and most likely his half-sister, Nefertiti. It was a common, and expected, tradition among ancient Egyptian pharaohs, for the ruler to marry the eldest daughter of his father. Regardless of her relation to him, Nefertiti, is famous in her own right and famed for her beauty. While the pharaoh had other wives as well, depictions found inside temples indicate that Nefertiti was without a doubt his chief wife, at least for twelve or so years. Inscriptions state that he loved her very much, however after several years she seems to have disappeared and Akhenaten made another woman his chief wife. It is unknown whether this occurred because of the death of Nefertiti or because she somehow fell out of favor with the pharaoh.

Facts on Akhenaton and His Religion

His promotion of one deity has earned him the title of "The Heretic Pharaoh". While the pharaoh had been raised, like many other famous Egyptian pharaohs, to worship Amun, five years after he took the throne he proceeded to make several important changes. The chosen deity of Akhenaton's worship was Aten, the Sun god. Born Amenhotep IV, the pharaoh changed his name to the now better known Akhenaten, a tribute to his chosen deity. He moved the capital from the traditional center in Thebes, where ancient Egyptian pharaohs had historically ruled, to an area in mid-Egypt. The new capital was initially named after the 'heretic' king, however today is known simply as el-Amarna. His wife, Nefertiti, appears to have been very supportive of the pharaoh's attempts to institute Aten as the sole god of Egypt. She may have even been the guiding force behind the move. 
King Khufu and the Great Pyramid

Of all the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, King Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) has received little recognition, although his contribution to the world of architecture is known around the world and is in fact one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and one of the top 5 sites in Egypt today. Construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza was begun during his 26 year reign.
King Snefru, another of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs and Khufu's father, was also quite prolific at pyramid building and it is thought that King Khufu's great pyramid might have been inspired by watching his father. While not much is known about this pharaoh, what little is known has been derived from the Great Pyramid and the artifacts and inscriptions found inside.

Khufu was born the son of Snefru and Hetepheres I around 2589 BC. He is known to have had at least three wives, who bore him sons that split into three distinct family groups following Khufu's death. Like most of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, Khufu built a temple to house his body after his death, although his mummified corpse has never been found.

King Khufu's Great Pyramid

Evidence indicates construction began on Khufu's pyramid very soon after he took the throne. The construction continued for almost the entire length of the king's reign, some 23 years. The religion and culture of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs commanded an impressive tomb be built to house the body of a ruler and prepare him for his journey in the afterlife. While the purpose of the Great Pyramid is thought to have been a burial chamber for the king, his queens and various other officials, the exact manner in which the pyramid was constructed continues to be debated.
For a number of years the popular belief was that slave labor was used to construct this marvel. Recent theories indicate, however, that rather than slave labor, King Khufu utilized his organizational skills and abilities to pull together the nation of Egypt in the construction of what would become his burial tomb and the largest pyramid known to man. Some historians argue that citizens either worked on the pyramid for wages or in exchange for a waiver of taxes. Regardless of the means by which King Khufu's great pyramid was constructed, there is no denying it's architectural wonder. Khufu managed to do what no other pharaoh accomplished and that is to build a temple and pyramid larger than any other in Egypt.
Today, the pyramid lies just outside the city limits of Cairo and unfortunately, over the years has been slowly disintegrating due to a number of reasons. It is believed that, like many of the other pyramids built by ancient Egyptian pharaohs, the masonry on the Great Pyramid of Giza was picked and recycled for use in more modern structures. Throughout its 4000 year history the pyramid has lost approximately 10 meters in height, although it still stands at an impressive 145 meters.
While history remembers Khufu as perhaps one of the most cruel and merciless of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, the Great Pyramid of Giza lives on as a testament to his tremendous ability to coordinate hundreds of workers towards one purpose. It is through this fantastic architectural marvel that Khufu will be remembered as one of many famous Egyptian pharaohs.

Ramses II
Birth: 1303 BC
Death: around 1213 BC (90 years old)
Father: Seti I
Mother: Tuya
Spouse: Nefertari
Successor: Merenptah (his 13th son)
Period: New Kingdom / 19th dynasty

Reign: 1279 BC to 1213 BC (66 years and 2 months)
Ramses II, aka Ramesses II, Rameses II, Sese or Ozymandias (Greek), was one of the most powerful and influential pharaohs of Egypt.
King Ramses the Second took the throne of Egypt in his early twenties (around 1279 BC) and ruled for 66 years until his death (1213 BC). He was the third ruler of the 19th Dynasty and ruled for an amazing 67 years, the second longest reign of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
He is known as Ramses the Great for his contributions to Egypt, including his war campaigns to the Mediterranean and into Nubia, as well as his construction projects, such as cities, temples and tombs.
A variety of health problems (such as arthritis and arterial issues) may have contributed to the end of the life of Ramses II, but he had accomplished much in his time.

Ramses II Biography: Architectural Accomplishments
Perhaps the best-known achievements of Ramses the Great are his architectural endeavors, most notable the Ramesseum and the temples of Abu Simbel. Ramses II's interest in architecture resulted in the erection of more monuments than any of the other ancient Egyptian pharaohs. A significant number of architectural tributes attributed to Ramses 2 still dominate the landscape of Egypt today.
The Ramesseum is a memorial temple complex situated close to Luxor (even closer to Qurna). Although it is in ruins now, it is still recognizable for the large Pylon of Ramesses inside which is useful as a historical document. 

Ramses II Pylon

Pylon is the Greek word for the entrance of an Egyptian temple. The pylon is inscribed with images showing Ramesses victories over the Hittites in war, and the subsequent peace treaty which ensued. This pylon, along with other inscriptions and temples created during Ramses II's reign, shows that this pharaoh wanted to be remembered for his influence on military, political, and religious life.

Also at the Ramesseum are the remains of a gigantic Ramses II statue. It used to be 56ft (17m) high, but now only parts of the torso and base remain. Other remains found are those of 2 large statues of a seated Ramesses 2 (the bust is on display in the British Museum).
The Abu Simbel temples, 2 massive twin rock temples, were also built by Ramses II. They are situated in Nubia (South Egypt), close to Lake Nasser, and were meant to commemorate his reign, and that of his queen, Nefertari. 
Pi-Ramesses, an ancient city in the Nile delta, was established by Ramesses 2 and used for his campaigns in Syria. This city is mentioned in the Bible, as a place where Israelites were forced to work for the Pharaoh.
Another ancient city, Abydos (known for its mythological inscriptions) was used by Ramses II to record the history of his reign and that of his ancestors, providing a wealth of knowledge for future generations on the accomplishments of these pharaohs.

Ramses II Pylon
The well known Ramses II statue unearthed at Memphis was thought to have been commissioned by Ramses II himself. It has shown people today how large of an impact Ramses the Great had on the artwork of his day have yielded similar large Ramses II statues. 
Ramses II: Military ImpactThe reign of Ramses 2 was marked by numerous military battles and he became one of the famous Egyptian pharaohs known for his military strength. Much of his reign was occupied with taking back territories that were lost to Egypt during the rule of other ancient Egyptian pharaohs (most notably Akhenaten) was preoccupied with establishing a monotheistic religion. Ramses II's army was 100,000 men strong, enormous for that period in time.
Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh 

Ramses 2's most famous battle is the Battle of Kadesh, which took place at the city of Kadesh (situated in present day Syria). Fought in 1274 BC against the Hittites, it was the largest chariot battle ever. Ramesses made a tactical error in that fight by dividing his forces, causing one of his divisions to be swept away. Eventually none of the parties gained victory and Ramesses had to retreat because of logistic difficulties.
The military genius of Ramses II helped to secure Egypt's borders from foreign invaders and pirates along the Mediterranean and in Libya. He managed to fend off invasions from the Hittites and Nubians. 
In addition, his campaigns restored land to Egypt that had been previously lost to these empires. By forming peace treaties with these empires after warring with them, Ramses II helped to solidify Egypt's borders on all sides, allowing for increased internal stability. Many of these campaigns were completed in the first twenty years of Ramses II's reign. 

Ramses II's Religious Impact
The religious impact that Ramses 2 had on Egypt is not to be overlooked either. After reigning for thirty years, Ramses II celebrated the Sed festival, in which the king was turned into a God.
Ramses II defaced the monuments of previous reigning dynasties which had fallen out of favor, and sought to return Egyptian religion to how it had been before the reign of Akhenaton.
Since the people of Egypt worshiped Ramses II as a god, it also helped to ensure that his son, who at that point commanded the army, would rise to power following his death, without anyone trying to seize the throne. 

Ramses II's Mummy
Ramses II was buried in the Valley of Kings, but had to be replaced because of looting. After a detour, his mummy was moved to tomb DB320, located near Deir el-Bahri, where it would be safe from tomb robbers. In 1881 his body was discovered there and moved to Cairo's Egyptian Museum.
The mummy learns us Ramses II was rather short for an ancient Egyptian: 5ft7 (170cm). It also shows us his hooked nose and wounds and fractures incurred in battle.
In 1974 the mummy was transported to Paris because it needed treatment for a fungal infection.

Ramses II Facts
Ramses II has been identified with at least two figures in the Bible, including Shishaq and the pharaoh of Exodus. Some suggest Ramses II is the pharaoh that ruled during the time of the Biblical Exodus story. The story is about the Israelites that are forced to work for the Pharaoh. The Hebrew god Yahweh helps them by imposing the Ten Plagues upon ancient Egypt, after which the Israelites manage to escape the Egyptian army at the Crossing of the Red Sea. However, these claims are controversial at best.
Ramses II had such a great legacy that at least nine later pharaohs were named after him.
Although Ramses II helped to consolidate Egyptian power, later pharaohs did not govern as well, and the Egyptian empire fell a century and a half after his death.
Analyses of the remains of Ramses the Great has revealed that he probably had red hair. Red-haired people in ancient Egypt were seen as followers of the God Seth.
At the end of his live Ramses II had serious health problems. He had dental problems resulting from an abscessed tooth and walked with a hunched back due to arthritis.
Ramses II outlived most of his family; his eventual successor was actually his thirteenth son, Merenptah (aka Merneptah). The 19th Dynasty ended with his rule.

While it was quite common for ancient Egyptian pharaohs to have several wives, Ramses II seems to have exceeded the norm in number of wives and children. At the end of his long life, the pharaoh had sired over 100 children.

King Tut Ankh Amun
A family of Egyptian Pharaohs eighteenth in the history of ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh of Egypt from 1334 to 1325 BC. M. In the era of the modern state, and was then aged nine years, and the name means in ancient Egyptian, "the living image of Amun", a large ancient Egyptian gods. Tutankhamen lived in a transitional period in the history of ancient Egypt, where he came after Akhenaten, who tried to unify the gods of ancient Egypt in the form of the one God, was in his return to the worship of multiple gods of ancient Egypt.

The Tutankhamen of the most famous pharaohs, for reasons not related to the achievements made or wars won by, but for other reasons, notably the discovery of his tomb and treasures in full without any damage, in addition to the mystery surrounding the circumstances of his death in a very early age, which was seen by many is not normal, especially with the presence of traces of fractures of the thigh bone and skull and the marriage of his widow and vizier of Pharaoh and the installation itself.

It is believed most of the experts Archaeology that Tutankhamun was either the son of Amenhotep IV better known as "Akhenaton," or of Amenhotep III, and believed that the period of his rule, ranging from 8 to 10 years, and show mummy tags that he was a young man under twenty years of age, was the conclusion recently the use of modern means he was probably a nine-year-old when he died.

During the reign of Tutankhamun, began a revolution of Tel el-Amarna pharaoh against the previous "Akhenaten," which moved the capital from Thebes to the new capital "sister kiln" Menya, and tried to unify the gods of ancient Egypt, including the multi-god Amun in the form of one god, Aten. In 1331 BC. M. Ie, in the third year of the rule of Tutankhamun, who was 11 years and the impact of the Minister, to lift the ban on the worship of multiple gods and returned the capital to Thebes.

Causes of death

For a long time was the cause of the death of Tutankhamun, a controversial issue and there were a lot of conspiracy theories which suggest the idea that he did not die but was killed in the assassination.

On March 8, 2005 and as a result of the use of visualization Acharhristi three-dimensional three-dimensional CT scans of the mummy of Tutankhamun, said archaeologist Egyptian Zahi Hawass, said there is no evidence that Tutankhamen was subjected to the assassination, adding that the hole in the skull no longer For some reason he received a blow on the head as it was previously thought, but had been posting, after death for the purpose of embalming, and d ills. Hawass bone fracture in the left thigh, which has long been linked to the theory of the assassination as a result of a broken thigh bone suffered Tutankhamun before his death and inflammation may be the output of this break may cause his death.
The final report of the Group of Archaeologists Masri said that the cause of death was blood poisoning as a result of fracture in the femur in which he was Tutankhamun, which led to Alanrin Gangrene, which is a cell death and tissue degradation as a result of the secretion of enzymes from the muscles of dead due to lack of oxygen to the blood .